When I first traveled in Europe in 1963, I kept my distance from Germany. The very hint of the German language when we neared its borders frightened and repulsed me. The Holocaust was still fresh in mind.
Last week, Franny and I spent a few days in Berlin. Time has created distance, softened my feelings, allayed my fears. Decades of German liberalism and cultural tolerance have attracted me. The brass Stumble Stones (Solpersteines) in front of countless homes, each identifying the Jewish resident who lived there before being murdered in the Holocaust, speak to a deep reckoning among the German people. Angela Merkel’s embrace of refugees has had me cheering. Her attempt to stand firm against Trump’s abuses, though it might cost her her leadership position, has been admirable. In those stark old terms, the enemy of my enemy is my friend.
For the most part, we were not disappointed. Berlin seems like open, optimistic city. More like Paris than London, where we had just spent a week, with tree-lined avenues and thousands upon thousands of cafes line the streets, peopled by laughing and eagerly engaged young people.
But this may be what it appeared to Jews like me in the 1920’s and very early 1930’s, even as Nazis and Communists competed to overturn the Weimar Republic. During that period, Berlin was bursting with a fierce and open discourse on the future of human society.
Then it happened. Quickly, decisively and disastrously, Hitler and the Nazis were elected to power. Remember that notion: they were elected. The liberals portrayed him as a thug, a buffoon, a liar and prophesied that he would soon be out of office. They protected themselves with gallows humor. They ‘knew’ that his rise represented an aberration in German society, when a minority outmaneuvered the majority. Almost no one anticipated the use of the Reichstag Fire (the burning of the German Parliament) to serve as a national emergency that required the “temporary” creation of authoritarian rule. But the ruse worked and the Nazis were instantly, and then inexorably, entrenched.
For decades after the defeat of Nazism in World War II, historians and social analysts searched for explanations for Hitler’s ascendance. They argued that it grew directly out of German culture, with its myths of Aryan superiority. They described the “authoritarian personality” that made the majority of Germans so responsive to Hitler’s call. They noted how suffering during the Great Depression amplified the need for a savior. In short, Nazism was portrayed as the inevitable outcome of cultural and economic forces.
But with the years, historians have come to see that the Nazi outcome was not inevitable. The conditions were ripe, but people and decisions brought it to fruition.
When the Nazis first took power, people said that Hitler’s reign wouldn’t last, that the German people would come to their senses and the problems would pass. This was the view of the Weimar liberals who had governed during the 1920’s; and it was the view of many Jews, who didn’t or, for lack of means, couldn’t, emigrate. They missed the signs. They simply couldn’t believe the Nazi menace would prove so cataclysmic.
This week, David Leonhardt, a New York Times journalist whom I admire, wrote that “this is not the time to despair or to panic.” It is time to work as hard as we can, largely at the grassroots level, to build opposition to Trump and the hard right Republicans who protect him because they are convinced that he is useful in protecting their interests.
Normally, I would be in Leonhardt’s camp. I have carried on a lifelong love affair with America and its Progressive traditions. Over the years, though, I have grown more cautious, more skeptical about the untrammeled “power of the people,” more appreciative of the small “c” conservative checks and balances built into the Constitution and the trenchant dictates of our Bill of Rights. Still a patriot on my terms, I have become less of a romantic and more of a realistic democrat.
Where once the belief that the fundamental generosity of the human heart would lead to eternal progress, in which social and economic justice and equality would prevail, my eyes have now opened to the evil that men do. I see the tendency to draw into tribes when we are threatened or simply feel threatened, then attack the “other” before the other attacks us. I can’t help but see the almost explosive growth of nativism and outright racism in the United States and around the world. And the nativists have formed into powerful groups, fueled, as Nazism was in Germany, by wealthy men, who thought it would serve their interests—and that they could control its excesses. These movements frighten me.
About a year ago, I wrote a couple of essays describing the parallels between Donald Trump and other fascist and authoritarian leaders. I worried that fascism had grown too close. Mostly the responses to these essays were tepid and slightly disapproving. People thought me pessimistic, alarmist. They thought my tone was too shrill. The more psychologically minded wondered if I was just depressed.
I am sad to say that my fears have only grown. Trump and his Republican enablers have been systematically removing the constraints on his power. With a second Supreme Court nominee, it is almost certain that the Court would deny challenges to his power. With the disenfranchisement of the Mueller investigation, the challenge to Trump’s legitimacy is vanishing. With the expansion of Executive Power, a century-long trend, the President can do more and more by fiat, claiming that he is the only one who knows the “will of the people.” With our tendency to cover Executive Action of all sorts—from trade to immigration policy—under the veil of national security, the President is freer to dictate national policy. As he does, Congress stands mute and impotent. Finally, Trump has seemingly joined forces with Russia and against our European allies, which looks a little like the Nonaggression Pact that Hitler formed with Stalin prior to the second World War.
Despite the outrage of much of our press and of, I imagine, the disapproval of the majority of American citizens, Donald Trump seems to be moving almost ineluctably towards dictatorship.
Judge for yourselves. Here is a definition of fascism: “…a form of radical authoritarian ultra-nationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce…” Does that not sound at least a little familiar? If Trump were to successfully muzzle the press, might this be possible? Does Trump’s embrace of Putin, Erdogan in Turkey, Duerte in the Philippines, Kim in North Korea, Orban in Hungary, Duda in Poland, Assad in Syria, and other dictators around the world at least suggest that this is his ideal?
The accusation that we have hurled at pre-Nazi, “regular” Germans is that they missed the signs, that they never took Hitler seriously enough. They didn’t fight hard enough or flee fast enough. They couldn’t see how an elected leader could become a dictator. How about us?
Could we have a Reichstag Fire of our own, a “national emergency” that “justifies” the consolidation of power in the hands of a narcissistic, power-hungry maniac? Could he arrange a little war in Korea, Syria, or anyplace that demands greater executive strength—the quality he so admires in Putin? How about an attack like the one in 2001? By weakening our intelligence community, isn’t Trump making this more likely? Might a few major hurricanes or wildfires provide an excuse? There are so many potential crises that would do well enough as pretext to a “temporary” dictatorship.
Unlike Germany, the United States has not reckoned with it terrible past, with the enslavement, then oppression of Africans and African Americans, and with the virtual decimation of Native American nations. We have been insufficiently reflective about our own culture, which may make us less able to deal with our current crisis.
Am I being alarmist here? Maybe. But isn’t it worth sounding the alarm? Shouldn’t we take more seriously this trend towards fascism? Shouldn’t we say that blinking light signaling a credible fascist threat has moved from yellow to red?. And, if it has, what should we do?